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How to Avoid Fall Risks in Solar Panel Cleaning?

rob-sys-rtm-serisi

BILKENT UNIVERSITY

Department of Electrical Electronics Engineering 

Bilkent 06800 Ankara, Turkey

A FINAL REPORT TO OFFER ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS TOREDUCE FALL RISK WHEN CLEANING SOLAR PANELS ON

MEHMET AKİF ERSOY ANADOLU HIGH SCHOOL’S ROOF,

KIRIKKALE

Damla Yıldız

21703475

ENG401: Technical Report Writing and Presentation

Instructor:Marlene Denice Elwell

Section: 14

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT…………………………………………………………………………………………………………v

LIST OF FIGURES……………………………………………………………………………………………. vi

LIST OF TABLES……………………………………………………………………………………………… vii

1.0       INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………………………. 1

2.0      PROBLEM DEFINITION…………………………………………………………………………. 1

2.1        Problem Scope……………………………………………………………………………………… 1

3.0      PROPOSED SOLUTIONS………………………………………………………………………. 2

3.1       Airobotics Solar Drone………………………………………………………………………….. 2

3.2     Robsys RTM Series Solar Panel Cleaning Robot………………………………………. 2

3.3     LDR-Arduino Based Wiper …………………………………………………………………… 3

4.0     CRITERIA FOR ASSESSING SOLUTIONS……………………………………………… 3

4.1     Safety Reliability……………………………………………………………………………………. 3

4.2    Applicability………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4

4.3  Cost……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4

5.0       RESEARCH METHODOLOGY…………………………………………………………….. 4

6.0       RESULTS AND ANALYSIS………………………………………………………………….. 5

6.1        Airobotics Solar Drone………………………………………………………………………… 5

6.1.1 Safety Reliability……………………………………………………………………………………. 5

6.1.2 Applicability…………………………………………………………………………………………. 5

6.1.3 Cost…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6

6.2 Robsys RTM Series Solar Panel Cleaning Robot……………………………………….. 6

6.2.1 Safety Reliability ………………………………………………………………………………………. 6

6.2.2 Applicability……………………………………………………………………………………………… 7

6.2.3 Cost………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7

6.3   LDR-Arduino Based Wiper ………………………………………………………………. 8

6.3.1 Safety Reliability ………………………………………………………………………………………. 8

6.3.2 Applicability…………………………………………………………………………….. 8

6.3.3 Cost …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 9

7.0    CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS……………………………………………. 9

7.1 Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………………………… 9

7.2 Recommendations………………………………………………………………………………… 10

7.3 Action Plan………………………………………………………………………………………………. 10

8.0 APPENDICES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 11

         APPENDIX A – Dirty Solar Panel…………………………………………………………….. 11

         APPENDIX B – Power Output Change After Solar Panel Cleaning……………. 12

         APPENDIX C – Mehmet Akif Ersoy Anadolu High School’s Roof……………… 13

         APPENDIX D – Solar Panel Cleaning in Mechanical Way………………………… 14

         APPENDIX E – Solar Panel Order on Mehmet Akif Ersoy Anadolu High SchoolRoof.   15

         APPENDIX F – Airobotics Solar Drone and Its Components……………………… 16

         APPENDIX G – Robsys- RTM Series Solar Panel Cleaning Robot and ItsComponents  17

         APPENDIX H– LDR- Arduino Based Wiper System…………………………………. 18

         APPENDIX I – Research Methodology Coverage………………………………………. 19

         APPENDIX J – Checklists…………………………………………………………………………. 20

         APPENDIX K – Airobotics Solar Drone’s Assessment……………………………….. 21

         APPENDIX L – Robsys- RTM Series Solar Panel Cleaning Robot’s Assessment.  22

         APPENDIX M – LDR- Arduino Based Wiper System’s Assessment……………. 23

         APPENDIX N – Solutions’ Overall Assessment………………………………………….. 24

         APPENDIX O – Gantt Chart…………………………………………………………………….. 25

9.0 REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 26

ABSTRACT

This study contains information regarding a security risk occuring while cleaning solar panels on theroofs. The main purpose of conducting this study is to offer technical solutions to clean solar panels on Mehmet Akif Ersoy Anadolu High School’s roof in a safer way. Usage of Airobotics Solar Drone or Robsys RTM Series Solar Panel Cleaning Robot and installation of LDR- Arduino Based Wiper system were offered as solutions. All three solutions’ safety reliability, applicability and cost were assessed by research methodologies which were literature review, market research and expert opinion. For assessment, each criterion was given a weighted percentage according to their significance and each solution was considered by their overall scores for each criterion. According to the study’s findings, all three solutions got the same score for safety reliability. Airobotics was found as the most expensive solution. LDR- Arduino Based Wiper System got the highest score for applicability and cost, therefore it was chosen as the optimal solution to reduce fall risk in the given pilot study area. After the system installation, damage control on the panels and placing the designed circuit into where it will not get wet were recommended.

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1. Dirty Solar Panel…………………………………………………………………………………….. 11

Figure 2. Mehmet Akif Ersoy Anadolu High School’s Roof……………………………………… 13

Figure 3. Solar Panel Cleaning in Mechanical Way………………………………………………… 14

Figure 4. Solar Panel Order on Mehmet Akif Ersoy Anadolu High School Roof………. 15

Figure 5. Airobotics Solar Drone…………………………………………………………………………….. 16

Figure 6. Airobotics Solar Drone’s Docking Station………………………………………………… 16

Figure 7. Inside of the Docking Station…………………………………………………………………… 16

Figure 8. Robsys- RTM Series Solar Panel Cleaning Robot…………………………………….. 17

Figure 9. Robsys- RTM Series Solar Panel Cleaning Robot’s Remote Controller……… 17

Figure 10. Photovoltaic Panel Used in the Pilot Study Area……………………………………… 18

Figure 11. LDR- Arduino Based Wiper System Schematic………………………………………. 18

Figure 12. LDR- Arduino Based Wiper System Design……………………………………………. 18

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Power Output Change After Solar Panel Cleaning…………………………………….. 12

Table 2: Research Methodology Coverage………………………………………………………………. 20

Table 3: Safety Reliability Checklist……………………………………………………………………….. 21

Table 4: Applicability Checklist…………………………………………………………………………….. 21

Table 5: Airobotics Solar Drone’s Safety Reliability………………………………………………… 22

Table 6: Airobotics Solar Drone’s Applicability………………………………………………………. 22

Table 7: Robsys- RTM Series Solar Panel Cleaning Robot’s Safety Reliability…………. 23

Table 8: Robsys- RTM Series Solar Panel Cleaning Robot’s Applicability……………….. 23

Table 9: LDR- Arduino Based Wiper System’s Safety Reliability…………………………….. 24

Table 10: LDR- Arduino Based Wiper System’s Applicability…………………………………. 24

Table 11: Solutions’ Overall Assessment………………………………………………………………… 25

Table 12: Action Plan Gantt Chart…………………………………………………………………………. 25

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Solar energy is a widely used renewable energy source in Turkey [1]. To convert solar energy toelectrical energy, solar panels are used; therefore, the panels can be on different places such as roofs, lands and mountainlands. There is dust, bird droppings and pollen accumulation on the panels’ surface (see Appendix A). Due to this accumulation, the panels’ efficiency can reduce up to 25% in time [3](see Appendix B). Therefore, the panels need to be cleaned.

However, cleaning solar panels especially on roofs is not safe because of fall risk [2]. Solar panelson Mehmet Akif Ersoy Anadolu High School’s roof are cleaned manually too.

This study’s purpose is to propose engineering solutions to reduce fall risk when cleaning solar panels on Mehmet Akif Ersoy Anadolu High School’s roof. The study’s impact is to bring back reduced efficiency to its standard value without human injury occurring by falling. The study’s significance is to reduce possible human injury risk and recovery cost paid by Social Security Institution (SGK).

2.0  PROBLEM DEFINITION

Solar panels can be cleaned by rain however, rain cannot clean them fully [4]; therefore, the cleaning process should be done in a mechanical way. In the mechanical way, cleaning staff climb up to the school roof with cleaning materials such as brushes, wipers, cleaning water and they clean the panels by hand. While they are cleaning the panels, fall risk occurs due to the roof slope, wind and slipperiness caused by dropped cleaning water [5], [6]. A man in Adana lost his balance while cleaning solar panels on his house’s roof and fell from the roof and died [7].

There are 146 solar panels on Mehmet Akif Ersoy Anadolu High School’s roof [8] (see Appendix C).These panels are cleaned manually by cleaning staff who are responsible for the panel cleaning (see Appendix D). The roof is not flat, it has 15 degrees slope so the slope increases fall risk. The panels on Mehmet Akif Ersoy Anadolu High School are near the roof edge [10] (see Appendix E); therefore, cleaning staff bend down to clear those panels and due to the roof slope, wind and slipperiness, fallrisk increases.

2.1  Problem Scope

Fall risk from Mehmet Akif Ersoy Anadolu High School’s roof while cleaning the solar panels isspecified by the following parameters:

  • Who: Cleaning staff who are responsible for panel cleaning and the schoolmanagement
  • What: Fall risk when cleaning solar panels on the PSA
  • When: Cleaning staff climbs up the the roof to clean solar panels
  • Where: Mehmet Akif Ersoy Anadolu High School’s roof
  • Why: Roof slope, slipperiness and wind
  • How: Balance loss

3.0  PROPOSED SOLUTIONS

Three technical solutions which minimize the need to climb up the roof were proposed to reduce fall risk from Mehmet Akif Ersoy Anadolu High School’s roof while cleaning the solar panels.

3.1   Airobotics Solar Drone

Airobotics Solar Drone (A.S.D.) was designed in collaboration with a drone manufacturer Airobotics and a solar panel manufacturer [11] (see Figure 5 in Appendix F ). A.S.D. has 5 cm position accuracy [12]. Its cleaning system can clean any type of dirt [13]. It has a real time remote control, dual video camera and monitoring system [13]. It has a docking station where its battery and water storage are replenished autonomously [14], [15] (see Figure 6 and 7 in Appendix F). The docking station has a 30 liter water payload which can clean ~30 panels [14].

Moreover, A.S.D can cover a range of 80 km² area [14] and also panels which have 1960 mm length, 990mm height and 40mm width [16]’, working situations can be monitored by the drone’s thermalmonitoring insight [17]. If efficiency loss or part damage occurs in any panel, it can be detected by the thermal monitoring insight because the panels’ thermal color looks different than it should.

Only one A.S.D is enough to clean all the panels on Mehmet Akif Ersoy Anadolu High School’s roof; however, cleaning water storage in the docking station needs to be refilled six times to clean thepanels in one attempt. The docking station will be installed by Airobotics in the school garden.

3.2  Robsys RTM Series Solar Panel Cleaning Robot

Robsys RTM Series Solar Panel Cleaning Robot was designed for solar panel cleaning on roofs [18](see Figure 8 in Appendix G). It has a remote controller [19], so there is no need to come to the roof edge or bend over to clean the panels (see Figure 9 in Appendix G). The robot has two lithium batteries, one inside the robot one separate and the batteries have 3-4 hours battery life [20]. The robot’s approximate weight is 57 kg [21]. In addition, the robot has two plastic brushes which were designed for solar panel cleaning [21] and the robot can clean both with and without water by these brushes [22]. The robot has the capability of cleaning 25 meters in 10 minutes [21] and it can move spaces between the panels [22]. Only one robot is enough to clean all the panels on Mehmet Akif Ersoy Anadolu High School’s roof. Since it can be portable [21], no installation is required. It can be used by cleaning staff after purchasing.

3.3  LDR-Arduino Based Wiper System

There are 385 Watt photovoltaic panels on Mehmet Akif Ersoy Anadolu High School’s roof (seeFigure 10 in Appendix H). There are 12 cells on the panel’s left and right side [23] and 3 LDRs (light sensors) are placed every three cells (see Figure 11 in Appendix H). LDRs’ signals are taken by the Arduino and according to the received signal, Arduino decides whether the panel is dirty and needs to be cleaned because if the panel is dirty [25], LDRs cannot get enough light so send 0s more than 1s to Arduino. If the panel is dirty, Arduino makes the wiper move down while cleaning water flows from the pipe which is on top of the panel (see Figure 12 in Appendix H) .

After one down-up movement, received signals are controlled again to check whether the panel is cleaned and if it is not cleaned enough, wipe moves down up again. The required cleaning brushdesigned for solar panel cleaning [27]. The LDRs-Arduino-Wiper electronic system is implementedby an electrical engineer, wiper and pipe are mounted on the panel by a mechanical engineer. LDR-Arduino Based Wiper System is implemented on each of 146 panels [4] on Mehmet Akif ErsoyAnadolu High School’s roof.

4.0  CRITERIA FOR ASSESSING SOLUTIONS

The following criteria were used to assess the proposed solutions: safety reliability [28], applicability[29] and cost [30].

4.1  Safety Reliability [28]

  • Airobotics Solar Drone: Risk of the drone hitting [31], [32] or falling on someone [33] were
  • Robsys RTM Series Solar Panel Cleaning Robot: Fall risk potential due to climbing up theroof to put the robot on the panels was inspected [34].
  • LDR-Arduino Based Wiper System: Fall risk potential due to the system installation on thepanels on the roof was examined [35].

4.2  Applicability [29]

  • Airobotics Solar Drone: Docking station installation [12] and drone’s monitoring systemapplicability [11] were
  • Robsys RTM Series Solar Panel Cleaning Robot: The robot usability on the PSA were in termsof roof slope and panels’ order [18].
  • LDR-Arduino Based Wiper System: Panels’ surfaces have fragile micro cells [36] so whetherthe designed system can be applied to the panels was checked.

4.3  Cost [30]

All three solutions’ affordability were be compared after evaluating the total cost of each [37].

  • Airobotics Solar Drone: The drone, required cleaning water, shipping andimplementing costs were
  • Robsys RTM Series Solar Panel Cleaning Robot: The robot’s price and shipping cost were
  • LDR-Arduino Based Wiper System: LDRs’, wipers’, pipes’, Arduinos’, brushes’ pricesand their shipping costs were In addition, implementing cost were summed for all panels on the PSA.

5.0  RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The solutions were checked against the criteria by the following research methods: literature review [38],market research [39], expert opinion [40] (see Appendix I).

  • Literature Review [38]: All solutions were examined by literature review for applicability[11], [12], [13], [14], [41], [42], [43] and safety reliability [11], [13],[19] [42], [43], [44], [45].
  • Market Research [39]: To specify each solution’s cost, market research was conducted [15],[46], [47], [48], [49], [50], [51], [52], [53]
  • Expert Opinion [40]: Çağrı Canöz’s (employee in İklim Enerji which is a solar panelinstallation and AR-GE company [54]) opinions about proposed solutions’ safety reliability,applicability and cost were taken. Kübra Karabulut (sales support engineer in Robsys) was called to get detailed information about Robsys RTM Series Solar PanelCleaning Robot.

6.0  RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

Safety reliability, applicability and cost of all three solutions were assessed using the predetermined research methodology. Since the project mainly focused on a safety problem, safety reliabilitycriterion has the highest weight which is 40%. Applicability and cost criteria have 30% weight each. To assess each solutions’ safety reliability and applicability, separate checklists were used (see Table 3 and 4 in Appendix J). For cost assessment, each solutions’ total cost were calculated on a scale of 1-3 as X stands for the total cost:

1- X > 450.000 TL

2- 450.000 TL > X > 200.000 TL

3- 200.000 TL > X

6.1  Airobotics Solar Drone

See Table 5 and 6 in Appendix K for the drone’s safety reliability and applicability scores.

6.1.1  Safety Reliability

  • Do people need to climb up the roof to clean the panels?

The drone can be controlled from anywhere inside of its range by its remote controller [13], [16], [17]; therefore, people do not need to climb up for cleaning.

  • Do people need to climb up the roof for the installation? There isno component to install on the roof [12].
  • Is there a possibility of hitting or falling on someone?

Yes, drone accidents such as hitting [31], [32] or falling on someone [33] may occuraccording to literature review. Therefore, the accident possibility is valid for Airobotics solar drone, too.

6.1.2  Applicability

  • Is the system manufacturable [55]?

The drone was manufactured and it is used for cleaning solar panels. There are a number ofnews about the drone and the manufacturer on the internet [11], [15], [41].

  • Is the PSA compatible with the installation of the solution [56]?

PSA is slightly compatible with the installation of the solution since for the docking station installation, a separate place needed in the school backyard [11], [12], [15]. In addition,computers in the school are not technological enough; therefore, the drone’s monitoringsystem cannot be installed on those computers.

  • Is the system easy to use after it is installed?

According to Ç. Canöz, the drone and its docking station usage may be difficult tounderstand. In addition, according to literature review, since the drone is fully automated[11], [13], it may be difficult to control the docking station.

  • Does a similar system exist [57]?

Similar solar panel cleaning drones are used [41], [42], [43].

  • Is it easy to contact the maintenance service?

Yes, however the maintenance service is in abroad [11], it may be difficult to send the drone or its components if any problem occurs. In addition, it may be tough to call thetechnical service since communication needs to be in English. However, there is noadministrator who speaks English fluently in the school.

6.1.3  Cost

  • Drone price: One drone is enough: 000$ [12] x 14.67 = 513.450 TL -Free shipping
  • Softwash pump set : 02$ [46] x 14.67 = 2.010 TL -Free shipping
  • Deionized pure water [53] price for per cleaning [47]: 30lt x 4 = 120lt

162,5 TL x 4 = 650 TL

Total cost is minimum 516.110 TL which is 1 point in cost scale.

6.2  Robsys RTM Series Solar Panel Cleaning Robot

See Table 7 and 8 in Appendix L for the robot’s safety reliability and applicability scores.

6.2.1  Safety Reliability

  • Do people need to climb up the roof to clean the panels?

Yes, cleaning staff need to climb up the roof to clean the panels because the robot must be put on the panels [21]. However, according to K. Karabulut, the robot is controlled remotely socleaning staff does not need to move on the roof while cleaning the panels.

  • Do people need to climb up the roof for the installation?

The robot has no component that requires to be installed on the roof.

  • Is there a possibility of hitting or falling on someone?

According to K. Karabulut, the robot has 4 sensors so when it reaches the gap, it stops. Therefore,it cannot fall from the roof on someone.

6.2.2  Applicability

  • Is the system manufacturable [55]

The robot was manufactured by Robsys and sold [20].

  • Is the PSA compatible with the installation of the solution [56]?

The PSA is slightly compatible with the installation of the solution because the robot was designed for approximately 10 times larger solar panel facilities according to K. Karabulut.

  • Is the system easy to use after it is installed?

It is easy to use the robot. According to K. Karabulut, after purchasing is completed,technical service demonstrates how to use the robot on the PSA.

  • Does a similar system exist [57]?

The same robot is widely used on industrial roofs and solar power plants [18],[19],[20], [21].

  • Is it easy to contact the maintenance service?

Yes, it is easy to contact the maintenance service. The company is interested in its customers.In addition, the company is in İstanbul [20], so it may not be as difficult for the technicalservice to arrive as abroad, if any problem in the robot is encountered

6.2.3  Cost

  • Robot price: One robot is enough: ~27.500$ x 14.67 = 425 TL
    • Customer goes and takes the robot from the Robsys
  • Fuel and highway toll cost: Distance between Robsys factory and PSA is approximately 500km [48] and approximate fuel usage is 30lt for a gasoline car, 16lt for a diesel car [49] .
    • Gasoline cost: 42.16lt [49] x 06 TL [50] x 2 = 1.607 TL ( for gasoline cars) 30lt [49] x 22.08 TL [50] x 2 = 1.324 TL (for diesel cars)
    • Highway toll: 50 TL [51] x 2 = 179 TL
  • Deionized pure water [53] price for per cleaning [47]: 30lt x 4 = 120lt

162,5 TL x 4 = 650 TL

Total cost is minimum 406.720 TL which is 2 points in cost scale.

6.3  LDR- Arduino Based Wiper System

See Table 9 and 10 in Appendix M for the system’s safety reliability and applicability scores.

6.3.1  Safety Reliability

  • Do people need to climb up the roof to clean the panels?

Cleaning staff do not need to climb up the roof for cleaning because the system cleans thepanels automatically when they get dirty [26].

  • Do people need to climb up the roof for the installation?

Yes, the system installation should be done for each panel on the PSA [26] and since thepanels were mounted on the roof, people who implement the system need to climb up the roof for the installation. According to Ç. Canöz, the fall risk during the system installation on the PSA can increase due to high temperature on the panels’ surfaces and panels’ order which are very close to each other. However, he indicates that potential fall risk during the installation can be minimized by following 6331 Occupational Health and Safety Law.

  • Is there a possibility of hitting or falling on someone?

Since the system will be mounted on the panels [26], there is no hitting or falling risk.

6.3.2  Applicability

  • Is the system manufacturable [55]

The system was installed on solar panels by T. Kargacıoğlu in Afyon Kocatepe University [26].

  • Is the PSA compatible with the installation of the solution [56]?

The PSA is highly compatible with the installation of the system. According to Ç. Canöz, required components for the system can be found easily and the system installation does not require too much workload. In addition, he indicates that the system is well designed so thereis no obstacle to install it on the PSA.

  • Is the system easy to use after it is installed?

Since the system works automatically [26], it is easy to use according to Ç. Canöz.

  • Does a similar system exist [57]?

The same system exists on two groups of solar panels in Afyon Kocatepe University [26].

  • Is it easy to contact the maintenance service?

An electrical electronics engineer or a mechanical engineer can control the system if anyproblem is encountered.

6.3.3  Cost

The system will be installed each panel on the PSA (146 panels) [4]

  • Cleaning brush: Total 145m [8], [26] brush needed. The cleaning brush is 1m [46]: 145 x (0.10$ x 14.67) = 212,7 TL [46] -Free shipping [46]
  • Pipe: Panels’ total width is 144,54m [8], [26]. PPRC pipe is 2m [58] 75 x 62,72 TL [58] = 704 TL -Free shipping [58]
  • Arduiono: 140,41 TL [59] x 146 = 498,4 TL -Free shipping [59]
  • LDR: 24 LDR requires for each panel [26]

24 x 146 x 1.12 [60] = 3.924,5 TL -Free shipping

  • Micro DC motor reductor: 146 x 2 TL [52] = 11.242 TL – 562,1 TL discount = 10.679,9 TL
  • Deionized pure water [53] price for per cleaning [47]: 30lt x 4 = 120lt 162,5 TL x 4 = 650 TL
  • Installation cost: 20.000 TL

Total cost is minimum 50.000 TL which is 3 points in cost scale.

7.  CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Assessment of all three solutions in terms of the chosen criteria was given in Appendix N.

7.1  Conclusion

  • Enough information about Airobotics Solar Drone’s cost could not be reached since thecompany did not reply to the mails sent to get detailed cost However, even thedrone’s price is enough to score it under cost scale.
  • Robsys RTM Series Solar Panel Cleaning Robot became the second in terms ofapplicability criterion. The robot was designed for larger solar energy facilities;therefore, its price is high for the
  • LDR- Arduino Based Wiper System scored the highest in terms of applicability and cost Therefore, it was found to be the optimum solution.

7.2  Recommendations

For LDR- Arduino Based Wiper System installation, it is recommended that:

  • Required safety precautions should be taken for the people who install the system on the
  • After the installation, panels’ microcells should be controlled since they may bedamaged during the
  • Designed circuit should be placed where it will not get wet due to the cleaning process or rain because if it gets wet, short circuit possibility may occur [61].

7.3  Action Plan

The following steps will be pursued for LDR- Arduino Based Wiper System installation:

  • Required components will be
  • The circuit will be designed and embedded into Arduino by an electrical electronics
  • The system hardware will be designed and mounted on the panels by a mechanical
  • Microcell damage control will be
  • Whether the installed system works or not will be Ganttchart for the action plan was given in Appendix O.

APPENDICES

Appendix A: Dirty Solar Panel

Figure 1. Dirty Solar Panel [2]

Appendix B: Power Output Change After Solar Panel Cleaning

Table 1: Power Output Change After Solar Panel Cleaning [3]

Appendix C: Mehmet Akif Ersoy Anadolu High School’s Roof

Figure 2. Mehmet Akif Ersoy Anadolu High School’s Roof [8]

Appendix D: Solar Panel Cleaning in Mechanical Way

Figure 3. Solar Panel Cleaning in Mechanical Way [9]

Appendix E: Solar Panel Order on Mehmet Akif Ersoy Anadolu High School Roof

Figure 4. Solar Panel Order on Mehmet Akif Ersoy Anadolu High School Roof [10]

Appendix F: Airobotics Solar Drone and Its Components

Figure 5. Airobotics Solar Drone [11]

Figure 6. Airobotics Solar Drone’s Docking Station [14]

Figure 7. Inside of the Docking Station [14]

Appendix G: Robsys- RTM Series Solar Panel Cleaning Robot and Its Components

Figure 8. Robsys- RTM Series Solar Panel Cleaning Robot [18]

Figure 9. Robsys- RTM Series Solar Panel Cleaning Robot’s Remote Controller [19]

Appendix H: LDR- Arduino Based Wiper System

Figure 10. Photovoltaic Panel Used in the Pilot Study Area [23]

Figure 11. LDR- Arduino Based Wiper System Schematic [24]

Figure 12. LDR- Arduino Based Wiper System Design [26]

Appendix I: Research Methodology Coverage

Table 2: Research Methodology Coverage

Appendix J: Checklists

Table 3: Safety Reliability Checklist

Table 4: Applicability Checklist

Appendix K: Airobotics Solar Drone’s Assessment

Table 5: Airobotics Solar Drone’s Safety Reliability

Table 6: Airobotics Solar Drone’s Applicability

Appendix L: Robsys- RTM Series Solar Panel Cleaning Robot’s Assessment

Table 7: Robsys- RTM Series Solar Panel Cleaning Robot’s Safety Reliability

Table 8: Robsys- RTM Series Solar Panel Cleaning Robot’s Applicability

Appendix M: LDR- Arduino Based Wiper System’s Assessment

Table 9: LDR- Arduino Based Wiper System’s Safety Reliability

Table 10: LDR- Arduino Based Wiper System’s Applicability

Appendix N: Solutions’ Overall Assessment

Table 11: Solutions’ Overall Assessment

Appendix O: Gantt Chart

Table 12: Action Plan Gantt Chart

9.0 REFERENCES

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1600245675228.htmlspm=a2700.7724857.normal_offer.d_title.36da408fMkkXaZ&s=p . [Accessed: Mar. 13, 2022].

  • “Saf Su 30 lt Distile Su Deiyonize Su %100 Pure Ekstra Saf,” com, [Online]. Available:https://www.n11.com/urun/saf-su-30-lt-distile-su-deiyonize-su-100-pure- ekstra-safli-2650452.[Accessed: Apr. 20, 2022].
  • “Kırıkkale Mehmet Akif Ersoy Lisesi- İstanbul Ataşehir Ferhat Paşa Mahallesi Yol,” Google Images, [Online]. Available:https://google.com/maps/dir/Ba%C4%9Flarba%C5%9F%C4%B1,+Mehmet+Akif+Ersoy+Anadolu+Lisesi,+K%C3%B6ro%C4%9Flu+Cd.+No:8,+71400+K%C4%B1r%C4%B1kkale+Merkez%2FK%C4%B1r%C4%B1kkale/Karadeniz+Cd.,+Ata%C5%9Fehir+Ferhat+Pa%C5%9Fa,+34888+Dudullu+Osb%2F%C3%9Cmraniye%2F%C4%B0stanbul/@40.3361867,26.8350489,6z/data=!3m1!4b1!4m14!4m13!1m5!1m1!1s0x4081dfafa039c86f:0xb985139c323a9c9d!2m2!1d33.5016158!2d39.8523229!1m5!1m1!1s0x14cacf7029a8efc3:0xa1e0019e0efbaded!2m2!1d29.1745739!2d40.9885636!3e0. [Accessed: Apr. 20, 2022].

Available: https://www.robotistan.com/6v-12mm-70-rpm-reduktorlu-dc-motor. [Accessed: Apr. 20, 2022].

What is Glass Greenhouse Cleaning?

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Glass greenhouses are widely used in plant production and cultivation. Glass greenhouses are better at maintaining the heat balance as they reflect the heat inside better. Glass greenhouses, which are used for better penetration of heat and light source into the interior, also minimize external effects such as rain, snow, wind and are durable. Glass greenhouse cleaning is done to minimize the emission of harmful gases to the nature inside the greenhouse. As Robsys Robotic Systems team, we will share with you the advantages of glass greenhouse cleaning and the solutions we offer in this article.

Why You Should Have Glass Greenhouse Cleaning?

Glass greenhouse cleaning is done to increase the efficiency of greenhouses and to protect the plants growing inside. Glass greenhouse should be cleaned periodically in order to prevent diseases that may occur and to protect the environment. In order to better benefit from solar energy as heat and light, glass greenhouse cleaning is done. The advantages of cleaning the glass greenhouse are as follows;

  • It allows you to take full advantage of solar energy. In natural conditions such as rain, snow and wind, dust and dirt accumulate in greenhouses. You can increase your productivity by cleaning the formation of these unwanted substances.
  • You can prevent the formation of unwanted gases in the cleaning of the glass greenhouse, and you can ensure that the plants grow better. You can minimize the emission of harmful gases to nature.
  • You can minimize the risk of transmission of diseases such as bacteria, fasurium or viruses that may occur in the greenhouse. After the glass greenhouse cleaning process, you can easily do my calcining and painting processes.

Glass Greenhouse Cleaning with Robsys Cleaning Robots

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As Robsys Robotic Systems team, we continue to work on increasing productivity by increasing production. In order to increase the efficiency you want to get from glass greenhouses, you can choose Robsys glass greenhouse cleaning robots while doing your periodic cleaning. Cleaning the glass greenhouse with Robsys is very fast and allows you to do detailed cleaning.

With our patented BNG series machines that we produce specially for greenhouses, you can not only clean, but also do your calcining and painting processes.

Synchronized working system with sensitive technology ensures detailed cleaning of your greenhouses without any damage.

While it provides high performance with its sensor technology, it offers easy use with its remote control feature.

In order to increase your efficiency in the greenhouse, you can clean with our Robsys BNG series robots in an environmentally friendly and quality manner. 

When you want to prefer BNG series machines that we have developed for greenhouse roofs, you can call us at “+90 216 206 00 96” or fill out the form to contact us.

This article may interest you: Solar Energy for a Sustainable Future

Solar Energy for a Sustainable Future

Because the resources on earth are limited and these resources harm the ecological balance, we should prefer renewable energy sources. It is necessary to prefer sustainable energy sources such as solar energy in order to protect natural resources and reduce the harmful effects on the environment resulting from the consumption of resources. Fossil fuels have been widely used in recent years due to their cheapness. Since 1973, studies have been started to find alternative solutions to fossil fuels. In order to preserve the balance of nature and due to the limited use of fossil fuels, energy has begun to be obtained from the wind and the sun. Using solar energy for a sustainable future is very important to protect our world.

What is Sustainability?

The concept of sustainability emerged due to reasons such as the decrease in resources in the world and the deterioration of the balance of nature as a result of human activities. So, what is sustainability? Sustainability is a concept that emerged to ensure that the resources existing in nature are regenerated and transferred to future generations. Using fossil fuels brings with it negative consequences that affect the world, such as ozone depletion, increased global warming, and climate change. Therefore, it is necessary to protect the future of the world by using sustainable and renewable energy sources. Energy sources that do not harm the nature such as solar energy, wind energy, wave energy should be preferred.

The Importance of Solar Energy in Sustainability

Sustainable and renewable energy sources are used to meet the energy needs of people. The biggest energy source that warms our world and enables the life cycle to occur is the sun. It ensures the survival of plants and animals while maintaining the ecological balance. While the fossil fuels we use to meet our energy needs cause this balance to deteriorate, it creates a big problem for our future. Solar energy should be used for a sustainable future. We can list how important solar energy is as follows.

  • Solar energy is a clean source. After the use of fossil fuels, it produces carbon dioxide, causing the ozone layer to be depleted and causing global warming.
  • Solar energy is an inexhaustible resource. It is impossible for the world to exist without the sun. As life continues on Earth, we can always use solar energy.
  • Although it can be used even in closed and cold weather, it allows you to produce your own energy without being dependent on outside.
  • Solar energy is a sustainable energy source and allows you to use the electricity you need thanks to solar panels.

Sustainable Solutions in Solar Panels with Robsys Cleaning Robots

As Robsys Robotic Systems company, we are trying to make sustainable energy sources more efficient in our R&D studies that we have been carrying out with our experienced team for 15 years. We use the advantages of technology for a sustainable world. In order to increase energy efficiency and ensure sustainability in the rapidly growing We produce solutions.

Our goal is to make our world more livable by ensuring continuity in green energy. As the Robsys Robotic Systems team, we attach importance to the unique, functional and technological designs of the solutions we develop. In this way, we produce patented innovative and high-capacity robots.

In order to increase the efficiency you get from solar energy panels, you can do your periodic cleaning with Robsys robots. When you clean your solar panels with RTM series, YTM series and DTM series cleaning robots, you can get high efficiency by spending low cost. To get in touch with us, you can call us at the number “+90 216 206 00 96” or contact us by filling out the form.

Why Should I Clean My Solar Panels With Cleaning Robots?

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Solar panels create a sustainable and renewable energy source by using the heat and light from the sun. It helps to reduce the costs arising from the use of electricity by converting the energy it produces into electrical energy. Since solar panels are on the roofs of houses, vacant lots or open areas, dust, mud and pollen stick on the panels over time. In order to get maximum efficiency from the solar panel and to prolong its life, it is necessary to clean it periodically. As Robsys team, we will answer the question of why solar panel cleaning should be done with a solar panel cleaning robot in detail in this article, and we will also include information about Robsys robots.

Why is Solar Panel Cleaning Important?

The lifetime of solar panels is 25 years on average, depending on the build quality, workmanship and area of ​​use. If you do not clean the solar panel during this process, the electricity efficiency you receive will decrease from year to year. 

Solar Power Plant (SPP) requires regular cleaning to increase its efficiency. Solar panels, the pores on them, absorb the heat and light they receive from the sun and convert them into electricity. Dirty and dusty surface prevents the panel from generating power. In order for the panels to produce rated power, dust, dirt, pollen and various filth must not adhere to their surfaces. Unwanted impurities may cause malfunction of the panel if not cleaned for a long time. 

Periodical cleaning is required in order to obtain high efficiency from the solar panel and to prevent the damages that may arise from pollution. Ionized pure water should be used during regular cleaning, chemical cleaners and pressurized water should not be preferred.

During Solar panel cleaning, the panels should not be stepped on. If micro cracks occur on the panels, water and other liquids that may enter inside may cause major problems in the plant.

GES Cleaning Robots

With the  GES cleaning robots that we developed as the Robsys team, we produce professional solutions to increase energy efficiency and ensure sustainability in GES power plants. Since we attach great importance to the original, functional and technological designs of the solutions we develop, we produce innovative and high-capacity robots. You can use sustainable energy resources more efficiently with our Robsys RTM Series, YTM Series and DTM Series solar panel cleaning robot models.

The RTM series cleaning robots, our final product, produced by our R&D team as a result of hard work, offer effective and easy cleaning with a daily cleaning capacity of 1-3MW and a remote control. Its 2 bi-directional systems allow you to perform detailed cleaning without damaging the panels. With battery and electric model options, you can easily clean the solar energy panels on the roof, ground, garden and all projects.

Our YTM Series cleaning machines  It is produced for fixed projects. With its strong structure and high cleaning capacity, it can clean an area of ​​2-4 MW per day. YTM series solar panel cleaning robot models provide easy use with its remote control feature, and it is suitable for every model panel with its water and waterless operation feature. Although it is produced for projects, it is light and portable with an average weight of 80-120 kg.

DTM series cleaning robots have a vertical working system. It is compatible with all solar panel systems and this model has a compact system integrated with pure water. DTM series cleaning robots, which are most preferred for cleaning solar panels in roofs, open areas and vertical installations, have the feature of working with and without water.  

Solar Panel Cleaning Robot Prices

You can use robots for panel cleaning to get high efficiency from solar panels installed for solar energy, which is a sustainable and renewable energy source. With Robsys solar panel cleaning robots, you can increase your electricity efficiency while reducing your costs. Solar panel cleaning robot prices vary according to the class and features of the robots. 

As Robsys team, we continue to work on automation cleaning robots that increase energy efficiency in GES power plants and provide sustainability. To learn the prices of Robsys patented products used in solar panel cleaning, you can call us at “+90 216 206 00 96“, contact page or at “info@rob-sys.com”.

What is Skyscraper Window Cleaning?

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How high-rise buildings such as skyscrapers, plazas, shopping malls and offices of various structures are cleaned has become the subject of curiosity of many after the increasing number of new structures. Among the old cleaning methods, this method is very dangerous in terms of life and property safety, while the scaffolding is cleaned with human power. Glass cleaning of high-rise buildings such as skyscrapers is carried out regularly by using suitable materials, while ensuring that the glasses are attractive. As the Robsys cleaning robots production team, we will include those who are curious about skyscraper window cleaning in this content.

How to Clean Skyscraper Glass?

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In terms of working at height rules and occupational safety laws, skyscraper cleaning is a task that needs attention and precautions. Since skyscrapers are very high structures, cleaning teams must take the necessary precautions. When we look at the question of how to clean the skyscraper; The cleaning team does the cleaning by building a scaffolding or deep cleaning can be done in a short time with the help of robots.

While working with the cleaning team takes a long time and is quite risky, cleaning robots use time effectively and are risk-free. At the same time, cleaning robots reduce labor costs 8 times. 

In manual cleaning, only 1 mW area can be cleaned in 4 days with 4 people. Robots, on the other hand, clean at least 1 mW per day with 2 personnel.

You can get maximum efficiency in a short time and reduce the pollution time of the panels thanks to the risk-free working conditions of robots in projects where routine skyscraper window cleaning is carried out.

If a robot is used in a project with a cleaning area of ​​4 mw, the cleaning takes a maximum of 4 days, while the leaves of the employees in manual cleaning may take 20-30 days due to unforeseen (hospital, funeral, work accident) personnel problems.

When Should Skyscraper Glasses Be Cleaned?

Since the facades of high-rise buildings such as skyscrapers are made of glass, they are more susceptible to pollution. Due to environmental conditions such as mud, stains and dust, which do not look clean, skyscrapers are easily polluted and leave a bad appearance. Since the structure of the skyscrapers is quite high, wide and long, their cleaning is quite extensive. Although the cleaning of skyscraper windows is generally done in the spring months, the cleaning periods vary according to the city where the skyscrapers are located. While water stains leave traces on skyscrapers in areas with heavy rainfall such as rain and snow, dust stains in rule areas shorten the cleaning period. With Skyscraper window cleaning robots, you can do your cleaning faster and in a shorter time.

Skyscraper Window Cleaning with Cleaning Robots

Thanks to the developing technology, robots in the cleaning sector and the robotic software that make them functional are also doing successful work in the cleaning sector without risking the safety of life and property. Cleaning of skyscrapers with cleaning robots facilitates fast and impressive cleaning of windows in high areas such as roofs. As the Robsys robotic system team, we offer high cleaning quality with our SLW series, SPD series and MVM series skyscraper cleaning robots, which we have put forth after intense R&D studies.

SKW Series

In glass, composite, granite and aluminum areas up to a height of 100 meters SkyWalker series You can provide cleaning and maximum hygiene with our machines. It offers detailed cleaning without damaging the glass surface with its climbing system and remote control mechanism. With the detergent dosing pump and detergent tank on it, it offers an average cleaning performance of 1500 m2 per day.

SPD Series

The ability to work without height limitSPD series skyscraper glass cleaning robots with suction cup structure It adheres to the glass and offers a safe cleaning. Unlimited working height makes SPD series robots more useful for skyscrapers of 100 meters and above, while providing efficient operation of the robot with its LCD screen display and remote control control panel. This robot class, which has an average cleaning performance of 1800 m2 per day, can be easily controlled with its camera system and online viewing features.

MVM Series

Our mobile crane machine cleaning series is intended for mobile use. It is preferred for detailed cleaning in the lower parts of skyscraper windows, especially in buildings, warehouses and warehouses. Our cleaning robots MVM series  Suitable for vertical use. Our MVM series patented robots, which are easily assembled and can be controlled by remote control, can be produced in different sizes upon request.

As the Robsys team, we have been working on automation skyscraper window cleaning robots for 15 years, which enable skyscrapers to be cleaned easily and in detail. You can call us at “+90 216 206 00 96” to learn the prices of our Robsys patented products in skyscraper window cleaning and to get detailed information, contact You can easily send us your requests by filling out the form on the page or at “info@rob-sys.com”.

How to Clean Solar Panel? What Should Be Considered?

With the development of technology, the need for energy has increased. With this increase in need, the importance of renewable energy sources has been understood and various systems have been developed to benefit from these sources. Although many different systems have been developed to benefit from renewable energy sources, the most widely used systems are known as “Solar Panels”. Solar panels are actively used in many different areas, especially in homes and workplaces. With solar panels, the energy carried by the sun’s rays can be converted into electrical energy. We can use the obtained electrical energy in technological products in our daily life. Solar panels have many different advantages, such as being environmentally friendly. However, in order to get the desired efficiency from the solar panels and to use them for a long time, a process called “Solar Panel Cleaning” should be applied.

In this article, we will answer the questions of What is Solar Panel Cleaning, Why Should I Clean My Solar Panels, How to Clean Solar Panels and What Should Be Considered While Cleaning Solar Panels? We will also talk about the Pollution Causes of Solar Panels and Solar Panel Cleaning with Robsys Cleaning Robots.

What is Solar Panel Cleaning?

There are different factors that affect the efficiency of solar panels. One of these factors is known as “Solar Panel Cleaning”. Solar panel cleaning is the process of cleaning solar panels with various methods to increase their efficiency and life.

With Solar panel cleaning the efficiency of the system is kept at a high level despite the passing years and the service life is at an average level or above the average. With solar panel cleaning, various dirt on the panels should be cleaned in a way that does not damage the system. Therefore, there are important points to be considered while cleaning the solar panel.

“What should be considered when cleaning solar panels?” You can find the answer to the question in the rest of our article…

Contamination Causes of Solar Panels

There are many different reasons that cause the pollution of solar panels. Some of the causes of pollution of solar panels are as follows;

  • The formation of traces of salt and ammonia in places close to animal coops such as livestock and poultry farms in agricultural lands and by the sea
  • Cracking, breaking or cracking as a result of cleaning with inappropriate cleaning materials and inexperienced personnel. corrosion conditions
  • Bird droppings falling on solar panels
  • Various residues and dirt caused by high humidity and high temperature
  • A variety of animals, such as insects or flies, are exposed to the sun. Residues resulting from the death of the solar panels
  • If there is an area around the solar panel, agricultural spraying dust
  • Soot and soot formed as a result of various processes such as air conditioning, heating and cooling
  • Dust of stabilized roads (the main structure of which has a hardened soil floor) and exhaust gases from vehicles
  • Soot and soot formed as a result of harmful gases from the chimneys of factories in industrial areas
  • Adhesion of pollen and various flower dusts spilled from the street on the solar panels
  • Dry and wet dust precipitations caused by dust carried with the wind
  • Limescale formed as a result of improper cleaning such as using mains or transport water in the cleaning process and traces of lime
  • Residue or traces from leaves, seeds, needles, resins and organic secretions of trees

Solar panels have many different reasons like these. In short, the reason for the pollution of the solar panel varies according to the environmental conditions in the environment where the solar panel is located.

How to Clean Solar Panel?

Distilled water or some alcohol cleaners are generally used in the solar panel cleaning process. Alcoholic cleaners are generally preferred in winter to prevent freezing on the panels. However, alcohol-based cleaners can leave water stains and reduce the efficiency of the panel. Therefore, if there is no risk of freezing, pure water is often preferred.

Deionized pure water does not leave any stains on solar panels. In this way, efficiency is increased with solar panel cleaning. In addition, since pure water is an insulator, the risk of electric shock is prevented and the risk of corrosion is prevented. 

Also, non-hard solar cloths should be used during solar panel cleaning. If you cannot find a solar cloth, a soft scouring pad or soft brushes can be used. Likewise, we recommend that you do not use high-pressure liquids during cleaning. Because of high pressure, micro cracks may occur.

What Should Be Considered While Cleaning the Solar Panel?

We mentioned that solar panel cleaning is very important for the efficiency and lifetime of the system. However, the points to be considered during the cleaning of the solar panel are not taken into account, and if the system is damaged intentionally or unintentionally, the cleaning does not matter. That’s why it’s important to pay attention to when cleaning solar panels.

Solar panel cleaning Some of the points to be considered while cleaning are as follows;

  • The most important thing to consider when cleaning solar panels is your life safety. Solar panels are usually located in high areas such as roofs, so you should be sure of your life safety against the danger of falling while cleaning. Another factor affecting life safety is electrical energy. Since electricity is produced in solar panels, insulating gloves and deionized distilled water should be used to avoid exposure to high voltage during cleaning of solar panels. Thus, life safety is ensured.
  • The solar panels should not be stepped on during cleaning. Because of your weight, visible or invisible cracks may occur on the panel. This situation negatively affects the operation of the panel, as well as problems such as electric shock due to rain water leaking into the cracks or the liquids used during cleaning. li>
  • Solar panel cleaning should be done in the evening or early morning when the panels are not hot. Since the panels will not be hot during these hours, cleaning can be done much easier.
  • Panel cleaning should be done at the beginning of every season and at regular intervals. Special solar brushes should be used during cleaning. 
  • Another point to be considered during solar panel cleaning is that the temperature of the cleaning water and the temperature of the panel should be close to each other. In other words, cold water should not be poured on the solar panel. If cold water is spilled, thermal shock may occur and the panels may become unusable. 

There are many issues such as these that should be considered during the cleaning of solar panels. As can be seen from these examples, cleaning solar panels is not as easy as it seems. Therefore, if you want to do a healthy solar panel cleaning, you can contact a company that has experts in the field or you can have the solar panel cleaning process done by the company.

Panel Cleaning with Robsys Cleaning Robots

Solar panel cleaning can be performed as we mentioned in our article, as well as with cleaning robots. As Robsys, we are at your service with our cleaning robots that we produce and develop for the cleaning of solar panels. However, “Why Clean with Robots?” You can ask the question. We can answer this question as follows;

  • Human Security
  • Panel Security
  • Energy Continuity

As Robsys, we have been working on robotic solutions for solar panel cleaning for 10 years. We increase the energy efficiency and lifetime of your solar panels with our patented cleaning robots. Thus, we contribute to sustainability in energy for a better future. In addition, our robots are easy to use and install, they are long-lasting, our after-sales service is extremely fast, and if the problem cannot be solved with remote support, we can provide service within 72 hours.

You may be interested in: Why Should I Clean My Solar Panels With Cleaning Robots?

In this context, we can introduce our solar panel cleaning robots that we have produced as Robsys in 3 different series. The series of our cleaning robots produced by Robsys for the cleaning of solar panels are as follows;

  • RTM Series: Our RTM Series cleaning robots are our latest product. With our RTM Series cleaning robots, you can perform your solar panel cleaning process via a remote control. Our RTM Series products can be used for floors, roofs and all projects with daily 1 – 3 MW cleaning capacity, 2 double-sided brush systems, battery and electric model options. 

RTM Series our products are between 40 – 59 kg It has heavy weight, being able to pass through the gaps between the panels, 1st class brushes that do not scratch the glass level, battery and also cable use, robot technology smart systems, water and waterless operation.

  • YTM Series: Our YTM Series cleaning robots are produced according to projects and institutions. Our YTM Series devices are designed according to the arrangement and dimensions of the specified solar panels. Our YTM Series devices are very durable and have a daily cleaning capacity of 2 – 6 MW. 

  • DTM Series: Our DTM Series cleaning robots are more preferred in solar panels used on roofs and high areas. Since our DTM Series products have a vertical working system, they can work in harmony with all solar panels on the market. 

DTM Series products have battery and electric model options, water and waterless operation, a compact system integrated with pure water and a weight between 70 – 105 kg.

As you can see, as Robsys, we have a cleaning robot for each solar panel for our customers. We continue to improve our products and services by closely following the developing technology.

Also, to better explain the MW unit we used in our article; In manual cleaning, 4 people can clean only 1 MW in 4 days. As it can be understood from here, our solar panel cleaning robots are very advantageous compared to standard cleaning.

In this article, we answered the questions of What is Solar Panel Cleaning, Why Should I Clean My Solar Panels, How to Clean Solar Panels and What Should Be Considered While Cleaning Solar Panels? We also talked about the Pollution Causes of Solar Panels and Solar Panel Cleaning with Robsys Cleaning Robots.

As Robsys team, we are working on automation cleaning robots that provide sustainability in order to increase energy efficiency in GES power plants. If you want to prefer Robsys patented products for solar panel cleaning, you can call us at the number “+90 216 206 00 96”, fill in the form on the contact page or send us your requests at “info@rob-sys.com“.

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